About the Authors

David J. Leslie

Contributed equally to this work with: David J. Leslie, Christian Heinen

Affiliations LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany

Christian Heinen

Contributed equally to this work with: David J. Leslie, Christian Heinen

Affiliations LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany

Frederic D. Schramm

Affiliation LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany

Marietta Thüring

Affiliation LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany

Christopher D. Aakre

Affiliation Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Sean M. Murray

Affiliations LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany

Michael T. Laub

Affiliations Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Kristina Jonas

kristina.jonas@synmikro.uni-marburg.de

Affiliations LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany, Department of Biology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DJL CH FDS MTL KJ. Performed the experiments: DJL CH FDS MT CDA KJ. Analyzed the data: DJL CH FDS MT CDA SMM MTL KJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DJL FDS CDA MTL KJ. Wrote the paper: DJL CH MTL KJ. Performed the mathematical modeling: SMM.