About the Authors

Clive J. Hoggart

Affiliation Department of Genomics of Common Disease, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Giulia Venturini

Affiliation Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Massimo Mangino

Affiliation Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Felicia Gomez

Affiliation Department of Genetics, Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Giulia Ascari

Affiliation Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Jing Hua Zhao

Affiliation MRC-Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Alexander Teumer

Affiliation Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Thomas W. Winkler

Affiliation Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

Natalia Tšernikova

Affiliations Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Jian'an Luan

Affiliation MRC-Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Evelin Mihailov

Affiliations Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia

Georg B. Ehret

Affiliations McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Center for Complex Disease Genomics, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland

Weihua Zhang

Affiliation Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

David Lamparter

Affiliations Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Tõnu Esko

Affiliations Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research and Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Aurelien Macé

Affiliations Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Sina Rüeger

Affiliations Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Pierre-Yves Bochud

Affiliation Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Matteo Barcella

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Yves Dauvilliers

Affiliations INSERM-U1061, Montpellier, France, National Reference Network for Orphan Diseases (Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia), Department of Neurology, Gui-de-Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, France

Beben Benyamin

Affiliations Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

David M. Evans

Affiliations MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Caroline Hayward

Affiliation MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Mary F. Lopez

Affiliations Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research and Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Lude Franke

Affiliation Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

Alessia Russo

Affiliation Genomic Variation in Human Populations and Complex Diseases Unit, Human Genetics Foundation and Dept. of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Iris M. Heid

Affiliation Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

Erika Salvi

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Sailaja Vendantam

Affiliations Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research and Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Dan E. Arking

Affiliation McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Center for Complex Disease Genomics, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Eric Boerwinkle

Affiliation Human Genetics Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

John C. Chambers

Affiliation Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Giovanni Fiorito

Affiliation Genomic Variation in Human Populations and Complex Diseases Unit, Human Genetics Foundation and Dept. of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Harald Grallert

Affiliation Research Unit Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany

Simonetta Guarrera

Affiliation Genomic Variation in Human Populations and Complex Diseases Unit, Human Genetics Foundation, Turin, Italy

Georg Homuth

Affiliation Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Jennifer E. Huffman

Affiliation MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

David Porteous

Affiliation Centre for Molecular Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Generation Scotland Consortium

Membership of Generation Scotland Consortium, The LifeLines Cohort study, and The GIANT Consortium is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Affiliation MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

The LifeLines Cohort study

Membership of Generation Scotland Consortium, The LifeLines Cohort study, and The GIANT Consortium is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Affiliation Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

The GIANT Consortium

Membership of Generation Scotland Consortium, The LifeLines Cohort study, and The GIANT Consortium is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Affiliation Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research and Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Darius Moradpour

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Service of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lausanne, Switzerland

Alex Iranzo

Affiliation Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain

Johannes Hebebrand

Affiliation Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

John P. Kemp

Affiliations MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Gert J. Lammers

Affiliations Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, Sleep Wake Center SEIN, Heemstede, The Netherlands

Vincent Aubert

Affiliation Division of Immunology and Allergy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Markus H. Heim

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Nicholas G. Martin

Affiliation Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

Grant W. Montgomery

Affiliation Molecular Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

Rosa Peraita-Adrados

Affiliation Sleep and Epilepsy Unit - Clinical Neurophysiology Department, Gregorio Marañón University Hospital, Madrid, Spain

Joan Santamaria

Affiliation Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain

Francesco Negro

Affiliation Service of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Service of Clinical Pathology, Geneva, Switzerland

Carsten O. Schmidt

Affiliation Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Robert A. Scott

Affiliation MRC-Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Tim D. Spector

Affiliation Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Konstantin Strauch

Affiliations Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany

Henry Völzke

Affiliation Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

Nicholas J. Wareham

Affiliation MRC-Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Wei Yuan

Affiliation Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Jordana T. Bell

Affiliation Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Aravinda Chakravarti

Affiliation McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Center for Complex Disease Genomics, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Jaspal S. Kooner

Affiliation Cardiovascular Science, National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Annette Peters

Affiliations Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany, Deutsches Zentrum für Diabetes, Neuherberg, Germany

Giuseppe Matullo

Affiliation Genomic Variation in Human Populations and Complex Diseases Unit, Human Genetics Foundation and Dept. of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

Henri Wallaschofski

Affiliation Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

John B. Whitfield

Affiliation Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

Fred Paccaud

Affiliation Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Peter Vollenweider

Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Sven Bergmann

Affiliations Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Jacques S. Beckmann

Affiliation Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Mehdi Tafti

Affiliations Center for Integrative Genomics (CIG), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Center for Investigation and Research in Sleep (CIRS), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Nicholas D. Hastie

Affiliation MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Daniele Cusi

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Murielle Bochud

Affiliation Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Timothy M. Frayling

Affiliation University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

Andres Metspalu

Affiliations Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia

Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliations Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Children and Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland

André Scherag

Affiliations Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany, Clinical Epidemiology, Integrated Research and Treatment Center, Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany

George Davey Smith

Affiliations MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Ingrid B. Borecki

Affiliation Department of Genetics, Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Valentin Rousson

Affiliation Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Joel N. Hirschhorn

Affiliations Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research and Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Carlo Rivolta

Affiliation Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Ruth J. F. Loos

Affiliations MRC-Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, The Charles Bronfman Institute of Personalized Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America, The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America, The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America

Zoltán Kutalik

zoltan.kutalik@unil.ch

Affiliations Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Competing Interests

Prof. Dauvilliers has received speaker's honoraria and support for travel to meetings from UCB Pharma, JAZZ and Bioprojet. Prof. Dauvilliers participated in advisory boards of UCB Pharma, JAZZ and Bioprojet. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CJH JCC NJW JSK JNH CR RJFL ZK. Performed the experiments: GV GA GBE BB JCC JSK. Analyzed the data: CJH GV MM FG JHZ AT TWW NT JL EM GBE WZ DL TE AMa SR PYB BB DME CH MFL LF AR SV GF SG JPK GM SB MT MBo IBB VR JNH CR ZK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GBE MBa YD CH ES DEA EB JCC HG GH JEH DP DM AI GJL VA MHH NGM RPA JS FN COS RAS HV WY JTB AC JSK AP HW JBW MT NDH DC TMF GDS IBB CR IMH HG JH GWM TDS KS NJW FP PV JSB AMe MRJ AS RJFL. Wrote the paper: CJH FG ZK.