About the Authors

Elaine T. Lim

Affiliations Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Peter Würtz

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, Computational Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Aki S. Havulinna

Affiliation Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Priit Palta

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Taru Tukiainen

Affiliations Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Karola Rehnström

Affiliation Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Tõnu Esko

Affiliations Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia, Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Reedik Mägi

Affiliation Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Michael Inouye

Affiliation Medical Systems Biology, Department of Pathology and Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Tuuli Lappalainen

Affiliations Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America, Stanford Center for Computational, Evolutionary and Human Genomics, Stanford, California, United States of America

Yingleong Chan

Affiliations Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rany M. Salem

Affiliations Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Monkol Lek

Affiliations Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jason Flannick

Affiliations Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Xueling Sim

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Alisa Manning

Affiliation Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Claes Ladenvall

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Lund University Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes & Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Suzannah Bumpstead

Affiliation Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Eija Hämäläinen

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Kristiina Aalto

Affiliation MediCity, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Mikael Maksimow

Affiliation MediCity, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Marko Salmi

Affiliation Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku and National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland

Stefan Blankenberg

Affiliations University Heart Centre Hamburg, Clinic for General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg, Germany, DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany

Diego Ardissino

Affiliation Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy

Svati Shah

Affiliation Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Benjamin Horne

Affiliation Intermountain Heart Institute, Intermountain Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

Ruth McPherson

Affiliation Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Gerald K. Hovingh

Affiliation Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Muredach P. Reilly

Affiliation Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Hugh Watkins

Affiliation Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Anuj Goel

Affiliation Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Martin Farrall

Affiliation Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Domenico Girelli

Affiliation University of Verona School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Verona, Italy

Alex P. Reiner

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Nathan O. Stitziel

Affiliation Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Sekar Kathiresan

Affiliation Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Stacey Gabriel

Affiliation Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Jeffrey C. Barrett

Affiliation Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Terho Lehtimäki

Affiliation Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland

Markku Laakso

Affiliation Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Leif Groop

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Lund University Diabetes Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes & Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Jaakko Kaprio

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, Dept of Public Health, Helsinki, Finland, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Dept of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Helsinki, Finland

Markus Perola

Affiliation Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Mark I. McCarthy

Affiliations Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom

Michael Boehnke

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

David M. Altshuler

Affiliations Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Cecilia M. Lindgren

Affiliations Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Joel N. Hirschhorn

Affiliations Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Andres Metspalu

Affiliation Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

Nelson B. Freimer

Affiliation University of California Los Angeles Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Tanja Zeller

Affiliations University Heart Centre Hamburg, Clinic for General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg, Germany, DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany

Sirpa Jalkanen

Affiliation Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku and National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland

Seppo Koskinen

Affiliation Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Olli Raitakari

Affiliations Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Richard Durbin

Affiliation Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Daniel G. MacArthur

Affiliations Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Veikko Salomaa

Affiliation Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

Samuli Ripatti

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom, University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, Dept of Public Health, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Biometry, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Mark J. Daly

Contributed equally to this work with: Mark J. Daly, Aarno Palotie

mjdaly@atgu.mgh.harvard.edu (MJD); aarno@broadinstitute.org (AP)

Affiliations Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Aarno Palotie

Contributed equally to this work with: Mark J. Daly, Aarno Palotie

mjdaly@atgu.mgh.harvard.edu (MJD); aarno@broadinstitute.org (AP)

Affiliations Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Psychiatric & Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

for the Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu) Project

Competing Interests

Abbott Diagnostics provided test reagents for FINRISK 1997 determinations of Galectin-3, Lp(a) and D-dimer within the framework of the MORGAM Biomarker Study and the BiomarCaRE project. SBl has received honoraria from Abbott Diagnostics, SIEMENS, Thermo Fisher and Roche Diagnostics and is a consultant for Thermo Fisher. VS has received a speaker honorarium from Roche Diagnostics. All other co-authors reported no conflicts of interest.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ETL PW DGM VS SR MJD AP. Performed the experiments: KR SBu EH RD AP. Analyzed the data: ETL PW ASH PP TT TE TLa NOS DGM MJD AP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YC RMS MLe JF RM MI XS AMa CL KA MM MS SBl DA SS BH RM GKH MPR HW AG MF DG APR SKa SG JCB TLe MLa LG JK MP MIM MB DMA CML JNH AMe NBF TZ SJ SKo OR RD VS SR AP. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: ETL PW LG JK MP MIM MB DMA CML JNH NBF DGM VS SR MJD AP.