About the Authors

Wenping Zhang

Contributed equally to this work with: Wenping Zhang, Zhenxin Fan

Affiliations Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu research base of giant panda breeding, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Zhenxin Fan

Contributed equally to this work with: Wenping Zhang, Zhenxin Fan

Affiliations Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States of America, Key Laboratory of Bioresources and Ecoenvironment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

Eunjung Han

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Rong Hou

Affiliation Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu research base of giant panda breeding, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China

Liang Zhang

Affiliation Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu research base of giant panda breeding, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China

Marco Galaverni

Affiliation ISPRA, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy

Jie Huang

Affiliation Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P. R. China

Hong Liu

Affiliation Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu research base of giant panda breeding, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China

Pedro Silva

Affiliation CIBIO-UP, University of Porto, Vairão, Portugal

Peng Li

Affiliation Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P. R. China

John P. Pollinger

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Lianming Du

Affiliation Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P. R. China

XiuyYue Zhang

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Bioresources and Ecoenvironment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

Bisong Yue

bsyue@scu.edu (BY); rwayne@eeb.ucla.edu (RKW); zhang_zoology@163.com (ZZ)

Affiliation Key Laboratory of Bioresources and Ecoenvironment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

Robert K. Wayne

bsyue@scu.edu (BY); rwayne@eeb.ucla.edu (RKW); zhang_zoology@163.com (ZZ)

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Zhihe Zhang

bsyue@scu.edu (BY); rwayne@eeb.ucla.edu (RKW); zhang_zoology@163.com (ZZ)

Affiliation Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu research base of giant panda breeding, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: WZ ZZ. Performed the experiments: JH PL LD XZ ZF HL WZ. Analyzed the data: WZ ZF EH MG JPP PS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WZ LZ HL. Wrote the paper: WZ ZF RKW MG BY. Managed the project: ZZ BY WZ RH RKW. Genome annotation: PS WZ. Genome selection: EH WZ.