About the Authors

Susan K. Service

Contributed equally to this work with: Susan K. Service, Tanya M. Teslovich, Christian Fuchsberger

Affiliation Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Tanya M. Teslovich

Contributed equally to this work with: Susan K. Service, Tanya M. Teslovich, Christian Fuchsberger

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Christian Fuchsberger

Contributed equally to this work with: Susan K. Service, Tanya M. Teslovich, Christian Fuchsberger

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Vasily Ramensky

Affiliation Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Pranav Yajnik

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Daniel C. Koboldt

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

David E. Larson

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Qunyuan Zhang

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Ling Lin

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Ryan Welch

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Li Ding

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Michael D. McLellan

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Michele O'Laughlin

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Catrina Fronick

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Lucinda L. Fulton

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Vincent Magrini

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Amy Swift

Affiliation Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Paul Elliott

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Faculty of Medicine, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, Department of Children and Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Marika Kaakinen

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Mark I. McCarthy

Affiliations Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom

Leena Peltonen

† Deceased.

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, The Program for Human and Population Genetics, The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Anneli Pouta

Affiliations Department of Children and Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine/Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Lori L. Bonnycastle

Affiliation Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Francis S. Collins

Affiliation Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Narisu Narisu

Affiliation Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Heather M. Stringham

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Jaakko Tuomilehto

Affiliation Department of Children and Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Samuli Ripatti

Affiliations Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom

Robert S. Fulton

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Chiara Sabatti

Affiliation Department of Health and Research Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

Richard K. Wilson

rwilson@wustl.edu (RKW); boenke@umich.edu (MB); nfreimer@mednet.ucla.edu (NBF)

Affiliation The Genome Institute at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Michael Boehnke

rwilson@wustl.edu (RKW); boenke@umich.edu (MB); nfreimer@mednet.ucla.edu (NBF)

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Nelson B. Freimer

rwilson@wustl.edu (RKW); boenke@umich.edu (MB); nfreimer@mednet.ucla.edu (NBF)

Affiliation Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NBF MB RKW CS RSF LP MIM. Performed the experiments: DEL LL LD MDM MO CFr CFu LLF VM RSF AS. Analyzed the data: SKS TMT CFu VR PY DCK DEL QZ LL RW LD CS MB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CFu VR DCK DEL QZ RW MK AP HMS. Wrote the paper: SKS TMT CFu CS MB NBF. Edited and Reviewed MS: PE MRJ MIM LLB FSC NN JT SR AS.