About the Authors

Mélissa Beaudoin

Contributed equally to this work with: Mélissa Beaudoin, Philippe Goyette

Affiliation Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Philippe Goyette

Contributed equally to this work with: Mélissa Beaudoin, Philippe Goyette

Affiliation Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Gabrielle Boucher

Affiliation Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Ken Sin Lo

Affiliation Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Manuel A. Rivas

Affiliation Center for the Study of IBD (CSIBD) Genetics, The Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Christine Stevens

Affiliation Center for the Study of IBD (CSIBD) Genetics, The Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Azadeh Alikashani

Affiliation Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Martin Ladouceur

Affiliation Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

David Ellinghaus

Affiliation Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany

Leif Törkvist

Affiliation Department of Clinical Science Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Gautam Goel

Affiliation Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Caroline Lagacé

Affiliation Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Vito Annese

Affiliations Unit of Gastroenterology, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico-Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza (IRCCS-CSS) Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (AOU) Careggi, Unit of Gastroenterology SOD2, Florence, Italy

Alain Bitton

Affiliation Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Jakob Begun

Affiliation Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Steve R. Brant

Affiliation Meyerhoff Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Center, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Francesca Bresso

Affiliation Department of Medicine of the Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden

Judy H. Cho

Affiliation Departments of Medicine and Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Richard H. Duerr

Affiliation Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Jonas Halfvarson

Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Örebro University Hospital and School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden

Dermot P. B. McGovern

Affiliation Cedars-Sinai F.Widjaja Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute, and Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Graham Radford-Smith

Affiliation Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Genetic and Computational Biology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, and Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Stefan Schreiber

Affiliations Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany, Department for General Internal Medicine, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany

Philip L. Schumm

Affiliation Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Yashoda Sharma

Affiliation Departments of Medicine and Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Mark S. Silverberg

Affiliation Mount Sinai Hospital Inflammatory Bowel Disease Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Rinse K. Weersma

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

Quebec IBD Genetics Consortium

A complete list of consortium members can be found following the Acknowledgments section.

NIDDK IBD Genetics Consortium

A complete list of consortium members can be found following the Acknowledgments section.

International IBD Genetics Consortium

A complete list of consortium members can be found following the Acknowledgments section.

Mauro D'Amato

Affiliation Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Severine Vermeire

Affiliation Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

Andre Franke

Affiliation Department for General Internal Medicine, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany

Guillaume Lettre

Affiliations Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Université de Montréal, Faculté de Médecine, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Ramnik J. Xavier

Affiliations Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Mark J. Daly

Affiliation Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

John D. Rioux

john.david.rioux@umontreal.ca

Affiliations Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Université de Montréal, Faculté de Médecine, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PG GL MJD JDR. Analyzed the data: PG MB GB KSL GG. Wrote the paper: MB PG GB MAR RJX MJD JDR. Functional characterization design and coordination: GG JB RJX. Study subject recruitment and phenotyping: AB SRB FB RHD JHC DPBM GRS SS MSS JH VA RKW MD SV AF JDR RJX LT. Sequenom assay designs: PG MB AA CL. Pooled sequencing protocol was design at the Broad Institute: MAR CS MJD. Pooling and sequencing protocol at the Montreal Heart Institute: MB. Follow-up genotyping: AA CL CS DE MB. Supplied follow-up genotyping data: MD SV MJD AF RKW. Data management for NIDDK IBDGC and IIBDGC Immunochip, and sample management for follow-up genotyping from the NIDDK IBDGC: YS PLS. Targeted exon capture design: KSL. Preparation and clean-up of primary sequence data and bioinformatic support: KSL. Designed the statistical and computational analyses: MAR MJD. Performed the statistical and computational analyses: PG ML GB. Project management: PG GL RJX JDR MJD. Supervised all aspects of the study: JDR.