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An antigenic diversification threshold for falciparum malaria transmission at high endemicity

Fig 1

Schematic illustration of two possible scenarios.

Below the diversification threshold, new genes are produced but die before any others arise (A). Above this threshold, they are produced within the lifespan of other new genes, causing their accumulation (B). Constant Red Queen dynamics between parasite antigens and the adaptive immune system under high transmission intensity result in high diversity of antigen-encoding genes.

Fig 1