Increasing growth rate slows adaptation when genotypes compete for diffusing resources
A) Schematic for the simulation experiment using resource-explicit models with Monod growth. Within a transfer, cells grew until resources were consumed. Then, cells were deterministically diluted and transferred to fresh environment (with random locations in spatial simulations). This continued until mutant invasion. B) Time series of invasion of faster-growing mutants in simulations, plotted as the mutant frequency versus transfer number. The black line is the time series for all well-mixed simulations (they perfectly overlap regardless of ancestor growth rate). The other colors are for spatially-structured simulations with different ancestor growth rates. Error bars are standard error over twenty replicates. The faster-growing mutant always had a 10% growth rate advantage over its ancestor competitors. The dashed horizontal line indicates the cutoff frequency that was used to determine the number of transfers required for invasion. C) The number of transfers the mutant required to reach a frequency of 0.9, plotted versus ancestor growth rate. Colors correspond to the same simulations in B.