Emergence of social inequality in the spatial harvesting of renewable public goods
(A, B) When the density of consumers is low (expressed as the ratio of harvested area to total area), all of them evolve to harvest at high rates and disperse far, without overexploiting the resource. As consumption density increases, such a resource-consumption strategy becomes unsustainable, leading to a diversification of strategies into frugal sedentary consumers with low harvesting rates and near-zero dispersal radii, and overexploitative mobile consumers with high harvesting rates and large dispersal radii. (C) The resultant per capita resource extraction rates (expressed as fractions of the system’s carrying capacity extracted per unit time) decrease with consumption density. Population averages are indicated by white lines, yield-maximizing resource-consumption strategies and resultant resource extraction rates by green lines, and profit-maximizing resource-consumption strategies and resultant resource extraction rates by magenta lines. The green and magenta lines are exponential fits to numerically estimated strategy values, as in S2F Fig. The average harvesting rates exceed the corresponding yield-maximizing and profit-maximizing harvesting rates, implying overexploitation of the resource and suboptimal per capita resource extraction rates. Parameter values are as shown in Table 1.