Between-tumor and within-tumor heterogeneity in invasive potential
The critical effect size defined as variance explained, R2, is shown for (A) between-tumor tests and (B) within-tumor tests. Calculations assume 20,000 two-tailed gene-based tests with genome-wide significance level 2.5 × 10−6 and 80% power. For between-tumor tests, the ratio of within-tumor to between-tumor variance is set to the observed value of 2.6. For within-tumor tests, pooling is assumed to reduce efficiency to 80%. Color bars indicate contour levels; between-tumor tests are limited to much larger effects and use only the upper region of the scale.