Lineage space and the propensity of bacterial cells to undergo growth transitions
a. Simplified toxin-antitoxin module, depicting its interaction with cellular growth rate. b. Deterministic steady state model predictions for a toxin with growth feedback. A regime with no deterministic molecular steady state (labeled "Growth Arrest") arises when toxin production sufficiently exceeds the growth feedback-imposed threshold. Growth rate is normalized to the maximum = 1. c. Binomial phenotypic inheritance at a constant molecule production rate. With no effect on cellular growth rate, the population exhibits regression to the mean within a few generations of division. d. With a discrete growth arrest threshold, the population becomes increasingly skewed over time. Box and whisker plots represent median, interquartile range, and range of a population started from a single simulated cell. Details on model implementation are presented in Supplemental Materials.