PhysiCell: An open source physics-based cell simulator for 3-D multicellular systems
Each cell has an independent expression of a mutant “oncoprotein” p (dimensionless, bounded in [0, 2]), which scales the oxygen-based rate of cell cycle entry. Blue cells have least p, and yellow cells have most. Initially, the population has normally distributed p with mean 1, standard deviation 0.3, and a “salt and pepper” mixed spatial arrangement. The proliferative advantage for cells with higher p leads to selection and enrichment of the most yellow cells. Stochastic effects lead to emergence of fast-growing foci and a loss of tumor symmetry. Bar: 200 μm. A video is available at S7 Video.