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PhysiCell: An open source physics-based cell simulator for 3-D multicellular systems

Fig 2

Hanging drop spheroid (HDS) simulations with deterministic necrosis (left) and stochastic necrosis (right), plotted at 4, 8, and 16 days.

Videos are available at S1 and S2 Videos. Legend: Ki67+ cells are green before mitosis (K1) and magenta afterwards (K2). Pale blue cells are Ki67- (Q), dead cells are red (apoptotic) and brown (necrotic), and nuclei are dark blue. Bottom: Hanging drop spheroid experiment (HCC827 non-small cell lung carcinoma) showing a similar necrotic core microstructure. PhysiCell is the first simulation to predict this structure arising from cell-scale mechanical interactions. Image courtesy Mumenthaler lab, Lawrence J. Ellison Center for Transformative Medicine, University of Southern California.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005991.g002