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Evolutionary Tradeoffs between Economy and Effectiveness in Biological Homeostasis Systems

Figure 3

Dynamics of the integral feedback model show exact adaptation following a step change in input.

(a) A step of input at leads to (b) an increase in the internal variable level, . The parameter determines the rate of response. (c) The output increases rapidly due to the input step, and decreases back to its baseline level due to the action of .

Figure 3