Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)
Simulation results of diving with different initial conditions. The initial values of forward speed (0.17 m/s), angular velocity of the body (−333°/s), tilt angle of the body (7°), striking speed of the hind legs (0.18 m/s), and striking speed of the middle legs (0.14 m/s), were varied ±30% to determine the effect on the diving trajectory. Each of these terms was varied ±30%, with the other terms held constant, to determine their effects on the overall trajectory. The values generated the closest diving trajectory as observed in the experimental studies was with an initial speed of 0.17 m/s, angular velocity of −333°/s, tilt angle of −7°, hind leg speed of 0.18 m/s, and middle leg speed of 0.14 m/s.