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Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)

Figure 7

Circling trajectories from swimming simulations.

The circular trajectories obtained from the swimming simulations are illustrated above. Based on the simulations, only three beating patterns stabilized to form a consistent circular trajectory, the middle right leg only (mr), the middle right followed by the hind right (mr, hr), and the middle right followed by the simultaneous beating of the hind legs (mr, hr+hl). The other beating patterns analyzed produced unstable trajectories, resulting in trajectories not observed in nature. Numerical analysis of the circular swimming trajectories is shown in Table 5.

Figure 7