Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)
As indicated above each frame, the beating patterns that generated a true linear path were those where the right and left middle legs (mr+ml), hind legs (hr+hl), and hind followed by middle legs (hr+hl, mr+ml) beat simultaneously. In these three cases, the total distance traveled was equal to Δy. For the other three cases where the middle right and left legs (mr, ml) and the hind right and left legs (hr, hl) beat alternately, and the simultaneous beating of the hind legs followed by the beating of a middle leg (hr+hl, mr, hr+hl, ml) the net forward distance traveled was calculated from a line between the start and end point. Numerical analysis of these trajectories is shown in Table 4.