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Adhesion Failures Determine the Pattern of Choroidal Neovascularization in the Eye: A Computer Simulation Study

Figure 12

Snapshots of a simulation replica showing sub-RPE CNV to sub-retinal CNV progression (P13 Progression).

3D and 2D visualizations of a simulation replica exhibiting P13 CNV progression during one simulated year (RRl = 1, RRp = 3, RBl = 1, RBp = 2, ROl = 3) (Table S7, adhesion scenario ID: 83, simulation ID: 515). Snapshots of the simulation at months 1 (A), 2 (B), 6 (C) and 12 (D). (A) Stalk cells (solid black arrow) invade the sub-RPE space through a hole in BrM (blue outline arrow) and form a capillary network. The vascular cells (black outline arrow) of the CC (red outline arrow) occupy the hole that the tip cell forms during the first 24 hours of the simulation, connecting the CNV capillaries to the CC. All stalk cells remain in the sub-RPE space during the first month of the simulation. (B) A few stalk cells (black outline arrow) cross the RPE into the sub-retinal space. (C) Additional stalk cells migrate into the sub-retinal space and form vascular cords (black outline arrow). (D) A 2D cross-section of the retina showing the hole in BrM. The stalk cells form a sub-RPE capillary network (black arrow) connected to a sub-retinal capillary network (black outline arrows). Two vascular cells connect the CC to the CNV capillaries through the hole in BrM. Cell type colors: 1) POS and PIS: light purple, 2) RPE: brown, 3) Stalk cells: green (stalk cells in the sub-retinal space have lighter shading), 4) Vascular cells (CC): red, 5) BrM: light blue. Scale bar ∼50 µm. We have rendered the boundaries of individual cells as semi-transparent membranes. POS, PIS and RPE cells are more transparent to show the underlying structures. See also Video S3.

Figure 12