About the Authors

Bin Huang

Contributed equally to this work with: Bin Huang, Mingyang Lu

Affiliations Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America

Mingyang Lu

Contributed equally to this work with: Bin Huang, Mingyang Lu

Affiliations Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, United States of America

Dongya Jia

Affiliations Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Program in Systems, Synthetic and Physical Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America

Eshel Ben-Jacob

† Deceased.

Affiliations Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, School of Physics and Astronomy, and The Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel

Herbert Levine

Herbert.Levine@rice.edu (HL); jonuchic@rice.edu (JNO)

Affiliations Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Department of Biosciences, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America

Jose N. Onuchic

Herbert.Levine@rice.edu (HL); jonuchic@rice.edu (JNO)

Affiliations Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Department of Biosciences, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: BH ML. Formal analysis: BH ML DJ. Funding acquisition: HL JNO. Investigation: BH ML. Methodology: BH ML. Software: BH. Supervision: EBJ HL JNO. Validation: BH ML DJ. Visualization: BH. Writing – original draft: BH ML. Writing – review & editing: BH ML DJ HL JNO.