About the Authors

Stephen Gang Wu

Affiliation Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Yuxuan Wang

Affiliation Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America

Wu Jiang

Affiliation Boxed Wholesale, Edison, New Jersey, United States of America

Tolutola Oyetunde

Affiliation Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Ruilian Yao

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, People’s Republic of China

Xuehong Zhang

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, People’s Republic of China

Kazuyuki Shimizu

Affiliation Institute of Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan

Yinjie J. Tang

yinjie.tang@seas.wustl.edu (YJT); forrest.bao@gmail.com (FSB)

Affiliation Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Forrest Sheng Bao

yinjie.tang@seas.wustl.edu (YJT); forrest.bao@gmail.com (FSB)

Affiliation Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, United States of America

Competing Interests

Wu Jiang is an employee of Boxed Labs, whose business is not related to bacterial metabolism. All other authors declare no conflict of interest.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SGW YJT. Performed the experiments: SGW YW WJ TO FSB. Analyzed the data: SGW RY XZ KS YJT FSB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: XZ YJT FSB. Wrote the paper: SGW KS YJT FSB.