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November 2019

Evolutionarily conserved signaling by peptide hormones related to insulin is known to underlie the nutrient-dependent regulation of sexually selected weapon growth in animals, but the molecular mechanisms that couple nutritional state to weapon growth remain largely unknown. Okada et al. show that one specific subtype of insulin-like peptide (ILP) responds to nutrient status and thereby regulates weapon size in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. The researchers found that the G. cornutus genome encodes five ILPs (GcorILP1–5) and two insulin-like receptors (GcorInR1, -2). RNA interference revealed that GcorILP2 specifically regulated weapon size, and was highly and specifically expressed in the fat body in a condition-dependent manner. The two receptors are functionally redundant but GcorInR2 is partially specialized for regulating weapon growth. The image shows the variation of weapon size in G. cornutus. Top right is a female; the others are males with varying sizes of mandibles – small (bottom right), medium (top left) and large (bottom left).

Image Credit: Yasukazu Okada

Essays

Framing the discussion of microorganisms as a facet of social equity in human health

Suzanne L. Ishaq, Maurisa Rapp, Risa Byerly, Loretta S. McClellan, Maya R. O’Boyle, Anika Nykanen, Patrick J. Fuller, Calvin Aas, Jude M. Stone, Sean Killpatrick, Manami M. Uptegrove, Alex Vischer, Hannah Wolf, Fiona Smallman, Houston Eymann, Simon Narode, Ellee Stapleton, Camille C. Cioffi, Hannah F. Tavalire

Perspectives

Host-associated microbiomes drive structure and function of marine ecosystems

Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Matthieu Leray, Aaron O’Dea, Benedict Yuen, Raquel S. Peixoto, Tiago J. Pereira, Holly M. Bik, David A. Coil, J. Emmett Duffy, Edward Allen Herre, Harilaos A. Lessios, Noelle M. Lucey, Luis C. Mejia, Douglas B. Rasher, Koty H. Sharp, Emilia M. Sogin, Robert W. Thacker, Rebecca Vega Thurber, William T. Wcislo, Elizabeth G. Wilbanks, Jonathan A. Eisen

Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon

Marcia C. Castro, Andres Baeza, Cláudia Torres Codeço, Zulma M. Cucunubá, Ana Paula Dal’Asta, Giulio A. De Leo, Andrew P. Dobson, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Raquel Martins Lana, Rachel Lowe, Antonio Miguel Vieira Monteiro, Mercedes Pascual, Mauricio Santos-Vega

Community Pages

Boosting natural history research via metagenomic clean-up of crowdsourced feces

Amrita Srivathsan, Niranjan Nagarajan, Rudolf Meier

Building de novo cryo-electron microscopy structures collaboratively with citizen scientists

Firas Khatib, Ambroise Desfosses, Foldit Players, Brian Koepnick, Jeff Flatten, Zoran Popović, David Baker, Seth Cooper, Irina Gutsche, Scott Horowitz

Research Articles

CEH-60/PBX regulates vitellogenesis and cuticle permeability through intestinal interaction with UNC-62/MEIS in Caenorhabditis elegans

Pieter Van de Walle, Ellen Geens, Geert Baggerman, Francisco José Naranjo-Galindo, Peter Askjaer, Liliane Schoofs, Liesbet Temmerman

Loss of MYO5B expression deregulates late endosome size which hinders mitotic spindle orientation

Changsen Leng, Arend W. Overeem, Fernando Cartón-Garcia, Qinghong Li, Karin Klappe, Jeroen Kuipers, Yingying Cui, Inge S. Zuhorn, Diego Arango, Sven C. D. van IJzendoorn

The role of selection and evolution in changing parturition date in a red deer population

Timothée Bonnet, Michael B. Morrissey, Alison Morris, Sean Morris, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Josephine M. Pemberton, Loeske E. B. Kruuk

Hypothalamic miR-30 regulates puberty onset via repression of the puberty-suppressing factor, Mkrn3

Violeta Heras, Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos, Maria Manfredi-Lozano, María J. Sanchez-Tapia, Francisco Ruiz-Pino, Juan Roa, Maribel Lara-Chica, Rosario Morrugares-Carmona, Nathalie Jouy, Ana P. Abreu, Vincent Prevot, Denise Belsham, Maria J. Vazquez, Marco A. Calzado, Leonor Pinilla, Francisco Gaytan, Ana C. Latronico, Ursula B. Kaiser, Juan M. Castellano, Manuel Tena-Sempere

Transcriptional regulatory divergence underpinning species-specific learned vocalization in songbirds

Hongdi Wang, Azusa Sawai, Noriyuki Toji, Rintaro Sugioka, Yukino Shibata, Yuika Suzuki, Yu Ji, Shin Hayase, Satoru Akama, Jun Sese, Kazuhiro Wada

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The effects of soil phosphorus content on plant microbiota are driven by the plant phosphate starvation response

Omri M. Finkel, Isai Salas-González, Gabriel Castrillo, Stijn Spaepen, Theresa F. Law, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Corbin D. Jones, Jeffery L. Dangl

Type I interferon limits mast cell–mediated anaphylaxis by controlling secretory granule homeostasis

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Local vulnerability and global connectivity jointly shape neurodegenerative disease propagation

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Parental breeding age effects on descendants’ longevity interact over 2 generations in matrilines and patrilines

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Tissue tropism and transmission ecology predict virulence of human RNA viruses

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Loss of adenomatous polyposis coli function renders intestinal epithelial cells resistant to the cytokine IL-22

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A specific type of insulin-like peptide regulates the conditional growth of a beetle weapon

Yasukazu Okada, Masako Katsuki, Naoki Okamoto, Haruna Fujioka, Kensuke Okada

Short Reports

Surveillance to maintain the sensitivity of genotype-based antibiotic resistance diagnostics

Allison L. Hicks, Stephen M. Kissler, Marc Lipsitch, Yonatan H. Grad

Single-cell transcriptomics of the naked mole-rat reveals unexpected features of mammalian immunity

Hugo G. Hilton, Nimrod D. Rubinstein, Peter Janki, Andrea T. Ireland, Nicholas Bernstein, Nicole L. Fong, Kevin M. Wright, Megan Smith, David Finkle, Baby Martin-McNulty, Margaret Roy, Denise M. Imai, Vladimir Jojic, Rochelle Buffenstein

Resolving noise–control conflict by gene duplication

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Methods and Resources

Data-driven analyses of motor impairments in animal models of neurological disorders

Hardeep Ryait, Edgar Bermudez-Contreras, Matthew Harvey, Jamshid Faraji, Behroo Mirza Agha, Andrea Gomez-Palacio Schjetnan, Aaron Gruber, Jon Doan, Majid Mohajerani, Gerlinde A. S. Metz, Ian Q. Whishaw, Artur Luczak

GPCRs show widespread differential mRNA expression and frequent mutation and copy number variation in solid tumors

Krishna Sriram, Kevin Moyung, Ross Corriden, Hannah Carter, Paul A. Insel

Meta-Research Article

Recurrent functional misinterpretation of RNA-seq data caused by sample-specific gene length bias

Shir Mandelboum, Zohar Manber, Orna Elroy-Stein, Ran Elkon