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Table of Contents

July 2019

Most bilaterian animals excrete toxic metabolites through specialized organs, such as nephridia and kidneys, which share morphological and functional similarities and define this major clade as the nephrozoa. In contrast, the excretory mechanisms in other (non-nephrozoan) animals are largely unknown, making the reconstruction of ancestral excretory mechanisms problematic. In this study, Andrikou et al. investigated the excretory mode of members of the Xenacoelomorpha, the sister group to Nephrozoa, and Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria. They show that although a cnidarian (a sea anemone) seems to use diffusion as its main excretory mode, two xenacoelomorph animals (an acoel and a nemertodermatid) use both active transport and diffusion mechanisms. The authors propose that digestive-associated tissues functioned as excretory sites before the evolution of specialized organs in nephrozoans. The image shows the localization of the rhesus glycoprotein (an ammonia transporter; magenta) in syncytium-affiliated cells in the gut of the acoel worm Isodiametra pulchra. The image is a projection of merged confocal stacks, also showing microtubules (green) and nuclei (blue). Andrikou et al.

Image Credit: Carmen Andrikou

Essay

Activity patterns in mammals: Circadian dominance challenged

David G. Hazlerigg, Nicholas J. C. Tyler

Unsolved Mystery

The biology of extracellular vesicles: The known unknowns

Leonid Margolis, Yoel Sadovsky

Community Pages

The Human Brain Project—Synergy between neuroscience, computing, informatics, and brain-inspired technologies

Katrin Amunts, Alois C. Knoll, Thomas Lippert, Cyriel M. A. Pennartz, Philippe Ryvlin, Alain Destexhe, Viktor K. Jirsa, Egidio D’Angelo, Jan G. Bjaalie

True Grit: Passion and persistence make an innovative course design work

Anne M. Casper, Sarah L. Eddy, Scott Freeman

Research Articles

Uncoordinated maturation of developing and regenerating postnatal mammalian vestibular hair cells

Tian Wang, Mamiko Niwa, Zahra N. Sayyid, Davood K. Hosseini, Nicole Pham, Sherri M. Jones, Anthony J. Ricci, Alan G. Cheng

A polymorphic helix of a Salmonella needle protein relays signals defining distinct steps in type III secretion

Emily Z. Guo, Daniel C. Desrosiers, Jan Zalesak, James Tolchard, Mélanie Berbon, Birgit Habenstein, Thomas Marlovits, Antoine Loquet, Jorge E. Galán

Social intolerance is a consequence, not a cause, of dispersal in spiders

Violette Chiara, Felipe Ramon Portugal, Raphael Jeanson

Global proteomic analyses define an environmentally contingent Hsp90 interactome and reveal chaperone-dependent regulation of stress granule proteins and the R2TP complex in a fungal pathogen

Teresa R. O’Meara, Matthew J. O’Meara, Elizabeth J. Polvi, M. Reza Pourhaghighi, Sean D. Liston, Zhen-Yuan Lin, Amanda O. Veri, Andrew Emili, Anne-Claude Gingras, Leah E. Cowen

Spermine in semen of male sea lamprey acts as a sex pheromone

Anne M. Scott, Zhe Zhang, Liang Jia, Ke Li, Qinghua Zhang, Thomas Dexheimer, Edmund Ellsworth, Jianfeng Ren, Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson, Yao Zu, Richard R. Neubig, Weiming Li

Novel antibiotics effective against gram-positive and -negative multi-resistant bacteria with limited resistance

Irène Nicolas, Valérie Bordeau, Arnaud Bondon, Michèle Baudy-Floc’h, Brice Felden

A novel Ca2+-binding protein that can rapidly transduce auxin responses during root growth

Ora Hazak, Elad Mamon, Meirav Lavy, Hasana Sternberg, Smrutisanjita Behera, Ina Schmitz-Thom, Daria Bloch, Olga Dementiev, Itay Gutman, Tomer Danziger, Netanel Schwarz, Anas Abuzeineh, Keithanne Mockaitis, Mark Estelle, Joel A. Hirsch, Jörg Kudla, Shaul Yalovsky

Successful validation of a larval dispersal model using genetic parentage data

Michael Bode, Jeffrey M. Leis, Luciano B. Mason, David H. Williamson, Hugo B. Harrison, Severine Choukroun, Geoffrey P. Jones

Delayed death in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is caused by disruption of prenylation-dependent intracellular trafficking

Kit Kennedy, Simon A. Cobbold, Eric Hanssen, Jakob Birnbaum, Natalie J. Spillman, Emma McHugh, Hannah Brown, Leann Tilley, Tobias Spielmann, Malcolm J. McConville, Stuart A. Ralph

Structural basis for recognition of the tumor suppressor protein PTPN14 by the oncoprotein E7 of human papillomavirus

Hye-Yeoung Yun, Min Wook Kim, Hye Seon Lee, Wantae Kim, Ji Hye Shin, Hyunmin Kim, Ho-Chul Shin, Hwangseo Park, Byung-Ha Oh, Won Kon Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Sang Chul Lee, Eun-Woo Lee, Bonsu Ku, Seung Jun Kim

LATS1/2 suppress NFκB and aberrant EMT initiation to permit pancreatic progenitor differentiation

Caitlin M. Braitsch, D. Berfin Azizoglu, Yadanar Htike, Haley R. Barlow, Ulrike Schnell, Christopher P. Chaney, Thomas J. Carroll, Ben Z. Stanger, Ondine Cleaver

Widespread selection and gene flow shape the genomic landscape during a radiation of monkeyflowers

Sean Stankowski, Madeline A. Chase, Allison M. Fuiten, Murillo F. Rodrigues, Peter L. Ralph, Matthew A. Streisfeld

Cooperative population coding facilitates efficient sound-source separability by adaptation to input statistics

Helge Gleiss, Jörg Encke, Andrea Lingner, Todd R. Jennings, Sonja Brosel, Lars Kunz, Benedikt Grothe, Michael Pecka

Atg11 tethers Atg9 vesicles to initiate selective autophagy

Nena Matscheko, Peter Mayrhofer, Yijian Rao, Viola Beier, Thomas Wollert

Spectral fingerprints or spectral tilt? Evidence for distinct oscillatory signatures of memory formation

Marie-Christin Fellner, Stephanie Gollwitzer, Stefan Rampp, Gernot Kreiselmeyr, Daniel Bush, Beate Diehl, Nikolai Axmacher, Hajo Hamer, Simon Hanslmayr

Short Reports

Spectrin-based membrane skeleton supports ciliogenesis

Ru Jia, Dongdong Li, Ming Li, Yongping Chai, Yufan Liu, Zhongyun Xie, Wenxin Shao, Chao Xie, Liuju Li, Xiaoshuai Huang, Liangyi Chen, Wei Li, Guangshuo Ou

Attenuation of chronic antiviral T-cell responses through constitutive COX2-dependent prostanoid synthesis by lymph node fibroblasts

Karin Schaeuble, Hélène Cannelle, Stéphanie Favre, Hsin-Ying Huang, Susanne G. Oberle, Daniel E. Speiser, Dietmar Zehn, Sanjiv A. Luther

Primary cilium loss in mammalian cells occurs predominantly by whole-cilium shedding

Mary Mirvis, Kathleen A. Siemers, W. James Nelson, Tim P. Stearns

Active mode of excretion across digestive tissues predates the origin of excretory organs

Carmen Andrikou, Daniel Thiel, Juan A. Ruiz-Santiesteban, Andreas Hejnol

Ancient RNA from Late Pleistocene permafrost and historical canids shows tissue-specific transcriptome survival

Oliver Smith, Glenn Dunshea, Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding, Sergey Fedorov, Mietje Germonpre, Hervé Bocherens, M. T. P. Gilbert

Methods and Resources

Targeted genetic screening in mice through haploid embryonic stem cells identifies critical genes in bone development

Meizhu Bai, Yujiao Han, Yuxuan Wu, Jiaoyang Liao, Lin Li, Lijun Wang, Qing Li, Wenhui Xing, Luonan Chen, Weiguo Zou, Jinsong Li

Dissecting the transcriptome landscape of the human fetal neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium by single-cell RNA-seq analysis

Yuqiong Hu, Xiaoye Wang, Boqiang Hu, Yunuo Mao, Yidong Chen, Liying Yan, Jun Yong, Ji Dong, Yuan Wei, Wei Wang, Lu Wen, Jie Qiao, Fuchou Tang

Assembling a plug-and-play production line for combinatorial biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides in Escherichia coli

Matthew Cummings, Anna D. Peters, George F. S. Whitehead, Binuraj R. K. Menon, Jason Micklefield, Simon J. Webb, Eriko Takano

N-terminal β-strand underpins biochemical specialization of an ATG8 isoform

Erin K. Zess, Cassandra Jensen, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Jan Sklenar, Madlen Stephani, Richard Imre, Elisabeth Roitinger, Richard Hughes, Khaoula Belhaj, Karl Mechtler, Frank L. H. Menke, Tolga Bozkurt, Mark J. Banfield, Sophien Kamoun, Abbas Maqbool, Yasin F. Dagdas

Correction

Correction: Attention promotes the neural encoding of prediction errors

Cooper A. Smout, Matthew F. Tang, Marta I. Garrido, Jason B. Mattingley

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