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Integrating phylogenies into single-cell RNA sequencing analysis allows comparisons across species, genes, and cells

Fig 4

Unification of trees for species, populations, genes, and cells.

All cellular life is related by an unbroken chain of cell divisions. Species phylogenies describe the relationship between populations. Populations are themselves a description of the genealogical relationships between individuals. Peering even closer reveals that each individual consists of a lineage of cells, connected to other individuals via reproductive cells. Therefore, species trees, genealogies, and cell lineages are all descriptions of the same concept—the tree of life—but at different scales. Gene trees and cell trees (i.e., cellular phylogenies) describe the evolutionary histories of specific characters within the tree of life. These trees may be discordant with species trees due to duplication, loss, and incomplete sorting in populations.

Fig 4