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Evolution of protein kinase substrate recognition at the active site

Fig 3

Evolution of kinase specificity at the group, family, and subfamily level.

(A) Differences in S/T kinase specificity models at the group, family, and subfamily levels. The Frobenius distance was calculated for all possible pairwise comparisons within and between groups, families, and subfamilies. (B) Representative kinase pairs belonging to different groups (left), families (centre), and subfamilies (right). Frobenius distances for each of the 3 pairs are given beneath the logos. (C) A simplified tree of life with 3 important divergence times (plant-opisthokont, fungi-metazoa, chordate-nonchordate) marked. (D) Phylogenetic estimation of kinase ages at the group, family, and subfamily level for S/T kinases. AGC, (PKA, PKG, PKC); CMGC, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases), glycogen synthase kinases (GSK) and CDK-like kinases (CLKs); mya, million years ago; PRKCG, Protein Kinase C gamma; RSK, Ribosomal S6 Kinases; RSKp70, Ribosomal S6 Kinases p70; RSKp90, Ribosomal S6 Kinases p90; S/T, serine/threonine.

Fig 3