Glucotypes reveal new patterns of glucose dysregulation
(A) Principal component (labeled “PC”) analysis of common measures used to describe glucose control and evaluate CGM data (S5 Data). Individual participants are colored based on their glucotype, the glycemic signature class in which they spent the majority of their time. The dot size is proportional to the fraction of time spent with severe variability. (B) Same principle component analysis, but participants are colored based on diabetes diagnosis. This diagnosis was based on the ADA Guidelines of HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and blood glucose concentration at 2 hours after the start of an OGTT. (C) Box and whisker plot of fraction of time spent with severe variability for nondiabetic, prediabetic, and diabetic individuals. The classification is based on all time windows, not restricting to the ones after standardized meals. (D) Proportion of CGM data in prediabetic and diabetic glycemic ranges defined in the ADA Guidelines. Participants are grouped by their diabetes diagnosis and colored by their glucotype. Some normoglycemic participants who demonstrated the severe glucotype reached prediabetic glycemic levels up to 15% of the time and diabetic glycemic levels 2% of the time. ADA, American Diabetes Association; CGM, continuous glucose monitoring; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.