Glucotypes reveal new patterns of glucose dysregulation
(A) Heat map of glycemic signature class responses to standardized meals. Rows represent individuals, and columns represent meals. Color indicates classification of response, and intensity indicates fraction of total responses (S7 Data). The number of total responses per individual corresponds to the number of standard meals each participant ate. Individuals are sorted by hierarchical clustering (left) based on the fraction of responses in a given class, regardless of the type of meal that triggered the response. (B) Contingency table reporting the number of responses to standardized meals assigned to a given glycemic signature class. Meals are sorted based on their net carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates–fiber). The size of the dots is proportional to the number of windows, and the intensity is the chi-squared ratio between observed and expected counts. There is a significant association between net carbohydrate content and severity of the response (p-value: 0.06, chi-squared test). “PB”: bread and peanut butter; “Bar”: PROBAR protein bar; “CF”: cornflakes and milk. For both panels A and B, the classification of glycemic responses to meals is based on the entire CGM profiles rather than on the initial set of clustered windows (see Methods). CGM, continuous glucose monitoring.