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Bonobo and chimpanzee gestures overlap extensively in meaning

Fig 3

Gesture types that were analysed for ASO distribution (video examples for all gesture types can be found at

All ASOs are given for each gesture type, in descending order from most to least frequent, as a percentage of all instances for all ASOs included in analysis (values in S1 Table, raw data in S1 Data). For bonobos, results for ANOVA are given in square brackets, e.g., [N(n): ANOVA results], with N as number of individuals and n as number of gesture instances (for age and sex of contributing individuals, see S2 Table); a significant effect shows that gesture usage differs from the average distribution of gesture frequencies. For chimpanzees, ANOVA or chi-squared analyses were performed [28]; square brackets contain published results. Underlined ASOs are shared by both chimpanzees and bonobos for that gesture type. This chi-squared analysis was conducted in Hobaiter & Byrne 2014 after checking and finding no effect of signaller identity on gestural meaning. We have included it for comparison but recognise that chi-squared analyses risk pseudoreplication. For analyses, we combined several ASOs from [28]: ‘Initiate copulation’ includes ‘Sexual attention—female’ and ‘Sexual attention—male’; ‘Initiate grooming’ includes ‘initiate grooming’ and ‘direct attention’; ‘Travel with me’ includes ‘Travel with me (adult)’ and ‘Travel with me (young)’. ASO, Apparently Satisfactory Outcome.

Fig 3