The Yin and Yang of Memory Consolidation: Hippocampal and Neocortical
(A) The experimental design was, metaphorically, like a children’s seesaw. In addition to the baseline experiment (Fig 1), a further group was preexposed to the watermaze extramaze cues with a dry-land inlay for 3 d prior to the experiment (Pre-E) and a third group to an interference trial 24 h after training (Int). Sleep and N + SD followed in a counterbalanced manner. The “dominant” trace is the lightest, rising above the other conflicting trace. (B) In the zone analysis, a group x condition interaction was seen (F = 3.3, df 2/82, p = 0.043, with post hoc linear contrast p < 0.05, both controlling for sequence of consolidation-type, d = 3.37 *p = 0.03, p = 0.025 and **p = 0.01 t-test to chance). (C) Spatial dwell time maps of the watermaze at 7 d test with warm colours indicating higher average dwell time. Note systematic shift of the “hot” area across the different group protocols. Example paths from individual animals are shown in S18 Fig. (D) The cluster analysis showed two clusters in the baseline and preexposure groups but only one cluster in the interference group. Red cross indicates platform position, grey cross indicates cluster centre. Each point represents a local maxima derived from the dwell time maps. For panels C and D, the location followed by sleep is graphically presented at NW (black) and followed by N + SD at SE (white) but was counterbalanced. (E) Shows the number of animals that had above 20% swim time in the zone surrounding the platform location for each condition and experiment. Only in Int was a significant effect seen, with more sleep animals being above and more N + SD animals below chance level (Fisher’s exact test p = 0.019). (F) To ensure a specific effect of novelty, we ran two further cohorts (n = 32 in each) repeating the Base and Int experiments but this time with sleep deprivation by gentle handling instead of novelty (SD). There was a significant novelty x experiment x condition interaction (F = 3.7, df 1/116, p = 0.033). N + SD = novelty with sleep deprivation, NW = northwest, SE = southeast, Means +/- 1 SEM; all raw data available in S1 Data.