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How Structured Is the Entangled Bank? The Surprisingly Simple Organization of Multiplex Ecological Networks Leads to Increased Persistence and Resilience

Fig 4

From species to multiplex functional groups.

(A) and (B) Trees explaining the multiplex functional groups based on the species connectivity (B; see cluster dendogram, S11 Fig) and on species traits (C; see regression tree, S12 Fig). Rectangles represent the multiplex functional groups. Numbers correspond to the cluster ID used in the main text. (C) Species taxonomy with species colored by functional group (same colors as in Fig 2). The p-values of the different functional groups are: consumers (clusters 1, 4, 7, 9, 14): p < 1e-5; competitors (clusters 3, 11, 12): p = 1e-4; facilitators/competitors (clusters 6, 10, 13): p = 0.04 (not significant); consumers/competitors (anemones; clusters 2 and 8): p < 1e-5; multiplex hub (mussels; cluster 5): p < 1e-5. Pictures on the bottom left represent, from top to bottom, the predatory sea star Heliaster helianthus (cluster 1), the competitively dominant mussel Perumytilus purpuratus (cluster 5), the predatory crab Acanthocyclus gayi sheltering within the habitat-providing kelp Lessonia spicata (cluster 6), and a mixed assemblage of diverse algae species (picture credits: E. A. Wieters). Underlying data can be found in the Dryad repository: [21].

Fig 4