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Mom Knows Best: The Universality of Maternal Microbial Transmission

Figure 1

Sources of microbial transmission in humans from mother to child.

Cut-away diagram highlighting the various internal and external sources of maternal microbial transmission as well as the species that are commonly associated with transfer from those regions. Regions discussed include the oral cavity [14],[16], the mammary glands [40],[78],[79], the sebaceous skin surrounding the breast [78],[80], the vaginal tract [19],[33],[73], and the intrauterine environment [14],[15],[17],[18],[29],[35][37],[40]. Illustration by Robert M. Brucker.

Figure 1