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Caring for Offspring in a World of Cheats

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Males contribute to the raising of offspring in a variety of ways in different species.

In earth-boring dung beetles (Geotrupes vernalis) (1) and oyster catchers (Haematopus ostralegus) (2), males and females live in pairs and share the burdens of providing food for their offspring. In cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) (3), males carry and protect offspring as they travel with the group while they are still being nursed by their mothers. Rainforest rocket frog (Silverstoneia flotator) (4) mothers transfer their eggs to the male before leaving, and the father cares for the developing offspring alone. Picture credit: All pictures under Creative Commons Attribution License: (1) HaPe_Gera,; (2) John Haslam,; (3) Qi Wei Fong,; (4) Brian Gratwicke,

Figure 1