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Radar Tracking and Motion-Sensitive Cameras on Flowers Reveal the Development of Pollinator Multi-Destination Routes over Large Spatial Scales

Figure 4

Flight paths in the modified pentagonal array of flowers.

Red dots indicate the location of artificial flowers (F1, F2, F4, F5, F6) and the nest-box (N). One familiar flower (location 3) was removed and a new one was introduced (location 6). The red cross indicates the empty feeding location (artificial flower removed, formerly F3). Black dots show the position of the bees at 3 s intervals as recorded by radar. Movement patterns of the three bees were recorded during eight successive foraging bouts (one column per bee, flight paths shown in chronological order from top to bottom). Red arrows represent the mean flight vector of the flight path (see Materials and Methods). Stars indicate search loops between immediate revisits to flowers. White arrows indicate the general directionality of the flower visitation sequence (clockwise or anticlockwise). Grey arrows indicate mean wind direction (degrees) and speed (m.s−1). The open black arrow (bottom left of each panel) indicates north. Distances are in metres. Labels 1–3 refer to the same individuals in all figures and tables. Videos of all radar tracks are available (Videos S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37).

Figure 4