Canine Morphology: Hunting for Genes and Tracking Mutations
The average LD distances were established by Gray et al. for several breeds based on the distance, where r2 decays to two . LD distances for breeds denoted with an (*) were established previously by Sutter et al. and are based on the distance where D′ falls to half its maximum value . The degree to which LD varies between breeds is remarkable and the fine mapping of traits is greatly facilitated when data from multiple breeds can be combined. The level of LD within a breed can be attributed to a number of factors: the historical use and popularity of the breed; the effective population size; bottlenecks due to size of the starting population; popular sire effects; and breeding practices which allow matings between closely related individuals.