About the Authors

Chantal B. F. Vogels

Contributed equally to this work with: Chantal B. F. Vogels, Mallery I. Breban

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

chantal.vogels@yale.edu (CBFV); joseph.fauver@yale.edu (JRF); nathan.grubaugh@yale.edu (NDG)

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Mallery I. Breban

Contributed equally to this work with: Chantal B. F. Vogels, Mallery I. Breban

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Isabel M. Ott

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Tara Alpert

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Mary E. Petrone

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Anne E. Watkins

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Chaney C. Kalinich

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Rebecca Earnest

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Jessica E. Rothman

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Jaqueline Goes de Jesus

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Departamento de Molestias Infecciosas e Parasitarias and Instituto de Medicina Tropical da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Ingra Morales Claro

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Departamento de Molestias Infecciosas e Parasitarias and Instituto de Medicina Tropical da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Giulia Magalhães Ferreira

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Departamento de Molestias Infecciosas e Parasitarias and Instituto de Medicina Tropical da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Laboratório de Virologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Myuki A. E. Crispim

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Fundação Hospitalar de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil

Brazil-UK CADDE Genomic Network

Membership of the Brazil-UK CADDE Genomic Network and the Network for Genomic Surveillance in South Africa (NGS-SA) is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Lavanya Singh

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine & Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Houriiyah Tegally

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine & Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Ugochukwu J. Anyaneji

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine & Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Network for Genomic Surveillance in South Africa

Membership of the Brazil-UK CADDE Genomic Network and the Network for Genomic Surveillance in South Africa (NGS-SA) is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Emma B. Hodcroft

Roles Investigation, Visualization, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Christopher E. Mason

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Tempus Labs, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Gaurav Khullar

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Tempus Labs, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Jessica Metti

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Tempus Labs, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Joel T. Dudley

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Tempus Labs, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Matthew J. MacKay

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Tempus Labs, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Megan Nash

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Tempus Labs, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Jianhui Wang

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Chen Liu

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Pei Hui

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Steven Murphy

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Murphy Medical Associates, Greenwich, Connecticut, United States of America

Caleb Neal

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Murphy Medical Associates, Greenwich, Connecticut, United States of America

Eva Laszlo

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Murphy Medical Associates, Greenwich, Connecticut, United States of America

Marie L. Landry

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Anthony Muyombwe

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Connecticut State Department of Public Health, Rocky Hill, Connecticut, United States of America

Randy Downing

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Connecticut State Department of Public Health, Rocky Hill, Connecticut, United States of America

Jafar Razeq

Roles Investigation, Resources, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Connecticut State Department of Public Health, Rocky Hill, Connecticut, United States of America

Tulio de Oliveira

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), School of Laboratory Medicine & Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Nuno R. Faria

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Departamento de Molestias Infecciosas e Parasitarias and Instituto de Medicina Tropical da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, J-IDEA, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Ester C. Sabino

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Resources, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Departamento de Molestias Infecciosas e Parasitarias and Instituto de Medicina Tropical da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Richard A. Neher

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland

Joseph R. Fauver

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Validation, Writing – review & editing

chantal.vogels@yale.edu (CBFV); joseph.fauver@yale.edu (JRF); nathan.grubaugh@yale.edu (NDG)

‡ These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Nathan D. Grubaugh

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

chantal.vogels@yale.edu (CBFV); joseph.fauver@yale.edu (JRF); nathan.grubaugh@yale.edu (NDG)

‡ These authors are joint senior authors on this work.

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.