About the Authors

Eriko Kudo

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Benjamin Israelow

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Chantal B. F. Vogels

Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Peiwen Lu

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Anne L. Wyllie

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Maria Tokuyama

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Arvind Venkataraman

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Doug E. Brackney

Roles Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Environmental Sciences, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Isabel M. Ott

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Mary E. Petrone

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Rebecca Earnest

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Sarah Lapidus

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

M. Catherine Muenker

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Adam J. Moore

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Arnau Casanovas-Massana

Roles Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Yale IMPACT Research Team

Membership of the Yale IMPACT Research Team is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Saad B. Omer

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Yale Institute of Global Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Yale School of Nursing, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Charles S. Dela Cruz

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Shelli F. Farhadian

Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Albert I. Ko

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Nathan D. Grubaugh

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review & editing

nathan.grubaugh@yale.edu (NDG); akiko.iwasaki@yale.edu (AI)

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Akiko Iwasaki

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

nathan.grubaugh@yale.edu (NDG); akiko.iwasaki@yale.edu (AI)

Affiliations Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.