About the Authors

Jonathan Kimmelman


Affiliation Studies of Translation, Ethics, and Medicine (STREAM), Biomedical Ethics Unit, Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Jeffrey S. Mogil

Affiliation Department of Psychology and Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Ulrich Dirnagl

Affiliations Departments of Neurology and Experimental Neurology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, and Excellence Cluster NeuroCure Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, German Center for Neurodegeneration Research (DZNE), partner site Berlin, Germany, Center for Cardiovascular Diseases (DZHK), partner site Berlin, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.