About the Authors

Heather J. Goldsby

goldsby@uw.edu

Affiliations BEACON Center for Evolution in Action, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

David B. Knoester

Affiliations BEACON Center for Evolution in Action, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

Charles Ofria

Affiliations BEACON Center for Evolution in Action, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

Benjamin Kerr

Affiliations BEACON Center for Evolution in Action, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: HJG CO BK. Performed the experiments: HJG. Analyzed the data: HJG DBK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HJG DBK. Wrote the paper: HJG DBK CO BK. Implemented digital evolution and multicells within EALib: HJG DBK.