About the Authors

Xiaojing Yang

Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaojing Yang, Kai-Yeung Lau, Volkan Sevim

Affiliations Center for Quantitative Biology and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, and Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Kai-Yeung Lau

Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaojing Yang, Kai-Yeung Lau, Volkan Sevim

Current address: Discovery Toxicology, Comparative Biology and Safety Sciences, Amgen, 1201 Amgen Court West, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Affiliation Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, and Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Volkan Sevim

Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaojing Yang, Kai-Yeung Lau, Volkan Sevim

Affiliation Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, and Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Chao Tang

tangc@pku.edu.cn

Affiliation Center for Quantitative Biology and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: XY KYL VS CT. Performed the experiments: XY KYL. Analyzed the data: XJ KYL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: XY KYL VS. Wrote the paper: XY KYL VS CT. Built the stochastic model: KYL. Built the in silico evolution model: VS.