About the Authors

Peter P Borbat

Affiliation Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

Kavitha Surendhran

Affiliation Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

Marco Bortolus

Affiliation Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

Ping Zou

Affiliation Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

Jack H Freed

Affiliation Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

Hassane S Mchaourab

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: Hassane.mchaourab@vanderbilt.edu

Affiliation Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

HSM conceived and designed the experiments. PPB, KS, and MB performed the experiments. PPB, KS, MB, and JHF analyzed the data. PZ contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. PPB, JHF, and HSM wrote the paper.