About the Authors

Xiaoxia Wang

Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaoxia Wang, Wendy E Grus

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Wendy E Grus

Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaoxia Wang, Wendy E Grus

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Jianzhi Zhang

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jianzhi@umich.edu

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

XW, WEG, and JZ conceived and designed the experiments. XW and WEG performed the experiments and analyzed the data. JZ contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. XW, WEG, and JZ wrote the paper.