About the Authors

Eric J Stewart

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: estewar1@post.harvard.edu

Affiliations Inserm, U571, Paris, France, Université, Paris, France

Richard Madden

address: Département de Microbiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada

Affiliation Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifique, Le Bois-Marie, Bures-sur-Yvette, France

Gregory Paul

Affiliations Inserm, U571, Paris, France, Université, Paris, France

François Taddei

Affiliations Inserm, U571, Paris, France, Université, Paris, France

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

EJS and FT conceived and designed the experiments. EJS performed the experiments. EJS, RM, GP, and FT analyzed the data. RM contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. EJS wrote the paper. RM developed BHV, the custom image and data analysis software.