Ancient genomes reveal a high diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in medieval Europe
Skulls represent strains from osteological specimens dated to the Medieval Period. Human silhouettes represent modern strains, sized to scale according to the number of samples, ranging from 1 (e.g. India) to 36 (South America) Animal silhouettes represent strains from the red squirrel, the nine-banded armadillo, and naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines). Skulls outlined in black are the new M. leprae genomes reconstructed in this study, while skulls outlined in blue represent previously sequenced ancient genomes. Grey skulls are leprosy samples from this study that did not yield sufficient sequence for whole-genome analysis. The main M. leprae lineages, represented by branches (see Fig 2) are color-coded.