Autophagy pathway induced by a plant virus facilitates viral spread and transmission by its insect vector
(A) At 48 hpi, RGDV P8, ATG8 and SQSTM1 in VCMs treated with (+) and without (-) BAF were detected by western blot assay. Insect ACTB was detected with ACTB-specific IgG as a control. (B, C) Fusion of virus-induced autophagosomes with lysosomes in mock- (B) or virus-infected (C) VCMs, as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy. At 48 hpi, VCMs were immunolabeled for lysosomes with LysoTracker Green DND-26 (green), for autophagosomes with ATG8-rhodamine (red), and for viral particles with P8-Alexa Fluor 647 (blue), and then processed for confocal microscopy. Data points presented are the averages from six different fields (B, C). Bars, 15 μm.