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Targeted mutagenesis in a human-parasitic nematode

Fig 6

The unc phenotype is heritable following host passage.

(A) Strategies for heritable transmission of Ss-unc-22 mutations. Gerbil hosts were infected with either all wild-type iL3s, a 50/50 mix of unc and wild-type F1 iL3s, or unc-enriched F1 iL3s. F2 and F3 progeny were collected from host feces and screened for unc phenotypes. Note that iL3s collected from host feces can be the F2 or F3 generation depending on whether they developed into iL3s directly, or after a free-living generation (Fig 1A) [10]. (B) Twitching frequency of wild-type control progeny and F2 or F3 progeny collected from unc infections. The twitching frequency of the F2 or F3 iL3s collected from the mixed unc infection differed from that of wild-type iL3s. ***P<0.001, chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. n = 1,908–3,849 iL3s per condition. The twitching frequency of F2 adults collected from the unc-enriched infection differed from that of wild-type adults. ***P<0.001, chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. n = 164–332 adults per condition. The twitching frequency of F2 or F3 iL3s collected from the unc-enriched infection differed from that of wild-type iL3s. ***P<0.001, chi-square test with Bonferroni correction. n = 2,694–3,849 iL3s per condition. (C) Swimming distance for wild-type iL3s vs. unc F2 or F3 iL3s over a 10-s period. unc iL3s swam shorter distances than wild-type iL3s. ***P<0.001, Mann-Whitney test. n = 15–16 worms for each population. (D) Mean crawling speed for wild-type iL3s vs. unc F2 or F3 iL3s over a 20-s period. unc iL3s showed reduced crawling speeds relative to wild-type iL3s. ***P<0.001, unpaired t test with Welch’s correction. n = 16 worms for each population.

Fig 6

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006675.g006