Dengue virus NS1 cytokine-independent vascular leak is dependent on endothelial glycocalyx components
(A-B) Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of HMEC-1 monolayers incubated with 5 μg/ml DENV2 NS1 (blue squares), 10 ng/ml recombinant cytokine ((A) IL-6, (B) TNF-α; purple diamonds), 100 ng/ml anti-cytokine mAbs ((A) IL-6, (B) TNF-α; orange triangles), recombinant cytokine + specific mAb ((A) IL-6, (B) TNF-α; green diamonds), or DENV2 NS1 + specific mAb ((A) IL-6, (B) TNF-α; red circles). The background signal was subtracted (using TEER values from a blank Transwell), and data were normalized to untreated HMEC-1. All data shown represent the mean +/- SEM and were collected from two independent experiments. Data represent two replicate Transwells per condition. A repeated measure two-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of anti-cytokine mAbs on DENV2 NS1-induced hyperpermeability in HMEC-1. ns = not significant.