Dengue virus NS1 cytokine-independent vascular leak is dependent on endothelial glycocalyx components
(A-C) HMEC-1 were stimulated with LPS (10 or 100 ng/ml; red squares and orange triangles, respectively) or DENV2 NS1 (5 or 10 μg/ml; dark blue triangles and light blue diamonds, respectively), and supernatant was collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-treatment. Untreated HMEC-1 monolayers were used as a control (black circles). ELISAs for (A) IL-6, (B) TNF-α, and (C) IL-8 were performed on all samples. All data shown represent the mean +/- SEM and were collected from two independent experiments. A repeated measure two-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons to the untreated group using Dunnett’s multiple comparison test was used to determine significance of treatment with LPS (10 and 100 ng/ml) or DENV2 NS1 (5 and 10 μg/ml). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ****P < 0.0001.