Abundance and co-occurrence of extracellular capsules increase environmental breadth: Implications for the emergence of pathogens
Frequency of bacterial species with and without detectable capsule system in function of their lifestyle (A) and level of host-association (B). Two different statistical assays were performed. Stars inside bars represent the result of two-tailed binomial tests to measure the difference between the observed over the expected events, indicated by the dashed line corresponding to the database bias. The P-values shown on top of the bars represent the result of the test of dependence between the two traits corrected by the phylogeny as calculated by the fitPagel function included in the phytools package for R. C. Minimum doubling time across Csp+ and Csp- bacteria. Statistics correspond to the test of a significant difference between the two groups (Wilcoxon rank sum test). ** P < 0.01 *** P < 0.001. It was controlled for phylogeny using the compar.gee function. The controls for phylogeny were done (in panels A, B, and C) using 100 trees obtained by bootstrap experiments to account for uncertainty in the phylogenetic reconstruction. The distributions of the corresponding 100 P-values are provided in S5 Fig. (see Methods).