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A virulence-associated filamentous bacteriophage of Neisseria meningitidis increases host-cell colonisation

Fig 1

Colonization of cells by the wild type and prophage deleted strains.

Quantification of the biomass on living and paraformaldehyde treated epithelial cells (FaDu). Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biomass in (A) with the Imaris software. (1) Z5463gfp (WT strain) on FaDu, (2) Z5463gfpΔMDA on FaDu, (3) Z5463gfp (WT strain) on fixed FaDu, (4) Z5463gfpΔMDA on fixed FaDu. Bacteria are shown in green and epithelial cells in red. Quantification of the biomass on living and paraformaldehyde treated endothelial cells (HDMEC). Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biomass in (C) with the Imaris software. (1) Z5463gfp (WT strain) on HDMEC, (2) Z5463gfpΔMDA on HDMEC, (3) Z5463gfp (WT strain) on fixed HDMEC, (4) Z5463gfpΔMDA on fixed HDMEC. Bacteria are shown in green and epithelial cells in red. Wild-type (Z5463gfp) and Z5463gfpΔMDA strains were grown onto cell monolayers for 18 hours under constant flow. The biomass was quantified using the COMSTAT software. At least three independent experiments were performed. The results are normalized as the percentage of the mean of the biomass of the wild-type strain on living cells, which was set to 100%. Error bars indicate the standard errors of the mean (SEM). **p < 0.001, *p < 0.05 (Student t test), NS: not significant p value.

Fig 1

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006495.g001