Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity
Sh2 (upper panels) binds strongly to avian-type (α2–3) receptors (left, white open shapes) with weaker binding to human-type (α2–6) receptors (right, black closed shapes). Sh2 V186K-K193T-G228S (lower panels) shows vastly reduced avidity for avian N-glycans and increased selectivity for extended glycan receptors to human receptors. Assays are conducted with biantennary, N-linked glycans (N) with one to four LacNAc (LN, Galβ1-4GlcNAc) repeats terminated with sialic acid (S) in α2–3 or α2–6 linkage (SLN1-4-N). An asialo, mono-LacNAc (LacNAc-biotin, LN-L) was used as a negative binding control.