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Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity

Fig 2

Specificity of wild type and mutant H7 HAs on glycan arrays and binding to chicken and human trachea epithelium.

Glycan binding analyses of Sh2 H7N9 HA wild type and several mutants that confer human-type receptor binding: G228S, K193T G228S, V186K K193T G228S, V186G K193T G228S, with human Cal/04/09 2009 pandemic H1N1 HA as a control. (A) ELISA-like assay using sialoside polymers. The mean signal and standard error were calculated from six independent replicates; white open circles represent α2–3 linked sialylated di-LacNAc (3’SLNLN), black closed circles represent α2–6 linked sialylated di-LacNAc (6’SLNLN), and non-sialylated di-LacNAc (LNLN) are represented in asterisks. (B) The glycan array mean signal and standard error were calculated from six independent replicates; α2–3 linked sialosides are shown in white bars (glycans 11 to 79 on the x axis) and α2–6 linked sialosides in black (glycans 80 to 135). Glycans 1 to 10 are non-sialylated controls (see also S1 Table). (C) Tissue binding to either chicken or human tracheal sections is observed by HRP-staining. The sialoside array, ELISA-like assay, and tissue binding experiments are representative of three independent assays performed with different batches of HA proteins.

Fig 2

doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006390.g002