Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity
Glycan binding analyses of Sh2 H7N9 HA wild type and several mutants that confer human-type receptor binding: G228S, K193T G228S, V186K K193T G228S, V186G K193T G228S, with human Cal/04/09 2009 pandemic H1N1 HA as a control. (A) ELISA-like assay using sialoside polymers. The mean signal and standard error were calculated from six independent replicates; white open circles represent α2–3 linked sialylated di-LacNAc (3’SLNLN), black closed circles represent α2–6 linked sialylated di-LacNAc (6’SLNLN), and non-sialylated di-LacNAc (LNLN) are represented in asterisks. (B) The glycan array mean signal and standard error were calculated from six independent replicates; α2–3 linked sialosides are shown in white bars (glycans 11 to 79 on the x axis) and α2–6 linked sialosides in black (glycans 80 to 135). Glycans 1 to 10 are non-sialylated controls (see also S1 Table). (C) Tissue binding to either chicken or human tracheal sections is observed by HRP-staining. The sialoside array, ELISA-like assay, and tissue binding experiments are representative of three independent assays performed with different batches of HA proteins.